CLIMATE: Factors and Zones

We are living on a planet in the solar system where life is possible because everything exists here. Here, there is sometimes heat, sometimes cold, sometimes dryness, sometimes humidity, and windy conditions. When these weather conditions persist for a long period, it is called climate. The study of climate is known as climatology.Climate is the combination of atmospheric conditions. It’s a weather pattern that changes over a 30-year time period. Earlier, it used to take hundreds and thousands of years for climate to change, but due to human activities, the atmosphere is getting polluted over time. This rapid pollution is causing climate to change quickly, leading to difficulties for animals, birds, marine life, and humans.

Factors Affecting Climate:

Factors which affect the climate are discussed below;


Earth has latitudinal lines that are horizontal and divide it into regions, such as the polar region, temperate region, frigid zone, equator, Tropic of Cancer, and Tropic of Capricorn. These regions significantly impact climate; for instance, the equator experiences hot climate due to direct sunlight, while polar regions have extremely cold and freezing climates. Arid zones are characterized by dry conditions. The Earth’s climate is influenced by its latitude, not longitude.


Altitude refers to the height of a location, and it significantly affects the climate of a place. As the altitude increases, the temperature tends to decrease. For example, in Pakistan, Karachi experiences temperate weather, while its northern areas, with higher altitudes, have colder temperatures.

Ocean Currents:

Ocean currents also impact climate because warm currents can lead to the generation of cyclones, while cold currents contribute to dryness. This is how ocean currents influence the climate of specific regions.

Local Winds:

Local winds in specific areas vary, ranging from dry to warm or cold. For instance, when warm winds blow in a particular area, it can result in the phenomenon known as “Loo,” characterized by hot and dry conditions.

Natural Vegetation:

In regions where there is a higher presence of plants and trees, the temperature tends to decrease primarily because sunlight doesn’t reach the ground as intensely. Therefore, vegetation significantly influences climate. Conversely, the absence of trees contributes to global warming and a warmer climate.

Climatic Zones:

Earth is divided into three zones. At the center of the Earth is the equator, which divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Above the equator in the Northern Hemisphere is the Tropic of Cancer, while below it in the Southern Hemisphere is the Tropic of Capricorn. The Arctic Circle is located at the North Pole, and the Antarctic Circle is situated at the South Pole.

So, the region from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn is referred to as the Tropic Region. In the Northern Hemisphere, the region from the Tropic of Cancer to the Arctic Circle is known as the Temperate Region, while in the Southern Hemisphere, the area from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Antarctic Circle is also called the Temperate Region. The last region is the Polar Region, located at the extreme North and South Poles.

Global Warming:

Many people are now aware of global warming because it is increasing with each passing day, playing a significant role in the rise of health issues. Global warming refers to the Earth’s temperature increasing at a rapid pace. It is mainly caused by human activities, as industries release harmful gases, and deforestation is on the rise due to the extensive use of trees in various products such as furniture, paper, crockery, and more. However, it becomes our responsibility to replant trees in the areas where we cut them for our use. Nowadays, many people have started using cars extensively, completely abandoning the use of bicycles. The emissions from cars, buses, and motorcycles affect the atmosphere, impacting the ozone layer and contributing to adverse climate change effects.


In this way, the Earth’s climate operates, and it is providing us with a lot. Therefore, we need to, first of all, reduce the use of cars and automobiles as much as possible. For short-distance travel, opt for walking or cycling. Additionally, it is essential for factories and industries to operate in an environmentally friendly manner. Avoid unnecessary electricity consumption, minimize waste disposal, and strive to recycle. Through small acts like these, we can contribute to saving the climate, benefiting our Earth and all living things


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